t  e  a  c  h  i  n  g
4. 2 7 2   B a c k g r o u n d   t o   S h a p e   G r a m m a r s
M a s s a c h u s e t t s   I n s t i t u t e   o f   T e c h n o l o g y
Semester:           Spring 2004
Readings:            Sotirios Kotsopoulos
Lecture:               Tuesday 2:30 – 5:30 pm



REPRESENTATION IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Brooks R., ‘Intelligence without Representation’, Artificial Intelligence, 47, 1991, 139-159, Elsevier

Marr D., ‘Artificial Intelligence: a personal view’, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, March 1976 

THEORY OF SYNTAX
Chomsky N., Syntactic Structures, Mouton, 1957, pp. 11-33, 49-60, 92-107

Hillier B., Leaman A., Stansall P., Bedford M., ‘Space syntax’, Environment and Planning B, 1976, vol. 3, pp. 147-185

Stiny G., ‘Two exercises in formal composition’ Environment and Planning B, 1976, vol. 3, pp. 187-210

GENERATIVE ALGORITHMS, THEORY OF COMPLEXITY
Simon H., ‘The architecture of complexity’, The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, 1988, pp. 192-229

Alexander C., The Timeless Way of Building, 1979, pp. 80-100, 173-210

Holland, J. H., ‘Basic Elements’, and ‘Adaptive agents’, Hidden Order: how adaptation builds complexity, 1995, Helix Books, pp. 1-91

Wolfram S., ‘Two Dimensions and Beyond’, A new kind of Science, 2002 pp. 169-222 

THEORY OF INDIVIDUALS
Leonard H., Goodman N., ‘The calculus of individuals and its uses’, The Journal of Symbolic Logic Vol. 5, Num. 2, June 1940, pp. 45-55

Goodman, N., Quine, W. V., 1947, (1972), ‘Towards a Constructive Nominalism’, Problems and Projects, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, pp. 173-198

Stiny, G., “Shapes are Individuals”, Environment and Planning B, 1982, vol. 9, pp. 359-367

Stiny, G., ‘Boolean algebras for shapes and individuals’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 1993, volume 20, pp. 359 – 362
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